Without William, the Dutch Republic presses on, and they get the Earl of Leicester to help them out against Alexander Farnese, the Duke of Parma, and Philip's governor in the Netherlands. The Dutch begin to run as a republic. Philip launches the Spanish Armada to take Farnese and his troops from the Low Countries to England.
- John Lothrop Motley, The Rise of the Dutch Republic
- John Lothrop Motley, The History of the United Netherlands
- Geoffrey Parker, The Dutch Revolt
- Geoffrey Parker, "Why Did the Dutch Revolt Last 80 Years?"
- Geoffrey Parker, The Journal of Military History "Limits to Revolution in Military Affairs"
- Oscar C Gelderbloom, "From Antwerp to Amsterdam"
- JL Bolton, Francesco Guidi Bruscoli, “When Did Antwerp Replace Bruges as the commercial and financial centre of north-western Europe?”, The Economic History Review, 2008