Episode 5.7 - The Hussite Wars Part 2 - Jan Zizka

The Hussites, now fighting both the Catholic Church and the Holy Roman Empire, find the leader they need to survive against impossible odds in Jan Zizka. Zizka was an incredible commander, who never lost a battle, and helped lay the groundwork for two centuries of a semi-independent Bohemian Church.

Sources:

  • Hrabě František Lützow, The Hussite Wars

  • John Klassen, “Hus, The Hussites and Bohemia”, The New Cambridge Medieval History

  • R. Urbanek and N.B.Jobson, “Jan Zizka, the Hussite”, The Slavonic Review

  • R.R. Betts, “Social and Constitutional Development in Bohemia in the Hussite Period”, Past & Present/Oxford Journals

  • Radio Praha

Names Mentioned:

Episode 5.6 - The Hussite Wars Part 1

The Hussite Wars started in 1419 with the first defenestration of Prague. This episode we discuss the road to the war, including the situation in Bohemia, and the preaching and then killing of Jan Hus.

Sources:

  • Hrabě František Lützow, The Hussite Wars

  • John Klassen, “Hus, The Hussites and Bohemia”, The New Cambridge Medieval History

Names Mentioned:

Episode 5.5 - Matilda of Tuscany

Matilda was the Margrave of Tuscany and for a time was the most powerful leader in northern Italy. She acted as an almost independent leader rather than a subject of the Holy Roman Empire, fighting with it over policy and supporting papal authority over imperial in an effort to reform and revitalize the church.

Sources:

  • Nora Duff, Matilda of Tuscany

  • Giovanni Tabacco, New Cambridge Medieval History, Northern and Central Italy in the Eleventh Century

  • Francis M Gillis, “Matilda, Countess of Tuscany”, The Catholic Historical Review

Names Mentioned:

Episode 5.4 - Abd al Rahman

Abd al Rahman, once a legitimate heir to the largest empire in the world, had to hide and flee in exile when his dynasty was overthrown and his family was destroyed. But he wound up in Spain, where he consolidated the fractured Arab conquest and reignited his dynasty.

Sources:

  • Philip K Hitti - History of the Arabs, From the Earliest Times to the Present

  • Ahmed ibm Mohammed Al-Makkari, The History of the Mohammedan Dynasties in Spain

  • Brian Catlos, Kingdoms of Faith A new History of Islamic Spain

  • Eduardo Manzano Moreno, The Iberian Peninsula and North Africa

  • Hugh Kennedy, The Muslims in Europe, The New Cambridge Medieval History

  • Abdurrahman A. El-Hajji, Andalusian Diplomatic Relations with the Franks During the Umayyad Period

Names Mentioned:

Episode 5.3 - Cyaxares

Cyaxares was the king of the Medes, who helped destroy the mighty and terrifying Neo-Assyrian Empire, create a massive empire based in the small region of Media, and laid the foundation of the Achaemenid Persian Empire.

Sources:

  • T. Cuyler Young, Jr., Cambridge Ancient History, The Early History of the Medes and the Persians and the Achaemenid Empire to the Death of Cambyses

  • Cambridge History of Iran, The Medes and the Neighboring Countries

  • Kevin Lelous, The Battle of the Eclips (May 28, 585 BC): A Discusssion of the Lydo-Median Treaty and the Halys Border

  • Encyclopaedia Iranica, Cyaxares

Names Mentioned:

Episode 5.2 - Piye

Piye was the King of Kush at a time when Egypt was weakened. He ruled over southern Egypt before trouble to his north brought him into conflict with the Egyptian kinglets in the Lower Nile region up North. He defeated them, and brought the Nubian Kingdom of Kish to it’s greatest heights

Sources:

  • The Victory Stele of Piye

  • John Taylor, The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, “The Third Intermediate Period”

  • Anthony Spalinger, “The Military Background of the Campaign of Piye”, Studien zur Altägyptischen Kultur

  • D.M. Dixon, “The Origin of the Kingdom of Kush (Napata-Meroë)” The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology

  • T.G.H. James, “Egypt: The Twenty-Fifth and Twenty-Sixth Dynasties” Cambridge Ancient History

Names Mentioned

Episode 5.1 - Ur-Nammu

Ur-Nammu was the first king of the Sumerian Third Dynasty of Ur. He helped restore native dominance in Sumer after centuries of foreign rule, instituted reforms and rebuilt the Sumerian infrastructure, and helped usher in the final era of Sumerian rule in Mesopotamia under the Neo-Sumerian Empire.

Sources:

  • Henry Freeman, Sumerians: A History From Beginning to End

  • Paul Kriwazczek, Babylon – Mesopotamia and the Birth of Civilization

  • Samuel Noah Kramer, “The Death of Ur-Nammu and His Descent to the Netherworld,” Journal of Cuneiform Studies

  • C. J. Gadd, The Cambridge Ancient History, CHAPTER XXII - BABYLONIA, c. 2120–1800 B.C.

Names Mentioned:

Episode 4.9 - Dutch Revolt Pt 9 - Frederick Henry

The 30 Years War has helped rekindle the 80 Years War, and the Dutch are again fighting for their nation's survival. But now they do so as a burgeoning major power on the European stage, led by William the Silent's youngest son, the new Prince of Orange, Frederick Henry. The Dutch stave off conquest and are formerly recognized by Spain and the rest of the world as an independent power with the Peace of Munster, a constituent part of the Peace of Westphalia.

Sources:

  • John Lothrop Motley, The Rise of the Dutch Republic
  • John Lothrop Motley, The History of the United Netherlands
  • Geoffrey Parker, The Dutch Revolt
  • Geoffrey Parker, "Why Did the Dutch Revolt Last 80 Years?"
  • Geoffrey Parker, The Journal of Military History "Limits to Revolution in Military Affairs"
  • Oscar C Gelderbloom, "From Antwerp to Amsterdam"
  • JL Bolton, Francesco Guidi Bruscoli, “When Did Antwerp Replace Bruges as the commercial and financial centre of north-western Europe?”, The Economic History Review, 2008
  • George Edmuson, The English Historical Review, "Frederick Henry Parts I and II"

Names Mentioned

Episode 4.8 - Dutch Revolt Pt 8 - Maurice and Oldenbarnevelt

Maurice continued to lead the Dutch Republic's army to victories, while Johan van Oldenbarnevelt ran the government. They negotiated a 12 Years Truce with Spain, but the outbreak of the 30 Years War brought renewed hostilities in the 80 Years War

Sources:

  • John Lothrop Motley, The Rise of the Dutch Republic
  • John Lothrop Motley, The History of the United Netherlands
  • Geoffrey Parker, The Dutch Revolt
  • Geoffrey Parker, "Why Did the Dutch Revolt Last 80 Years?"
  • Geoffrey Parker, The Journal of Military History "Limits to Revolution in Military Affairs"
  • Oscar C Gelderbloom, "From Antwerp to Amsterdam"
  • JL Bolton, Francesco Guidi Bruscoli, “When Did Antwerp Replace Bruges as the commercial and financial centre of north-western Europe?”, The Economic History Review, 2008

Names Mentioned:

Episode 4.7 - Dutch Revolt Pt 7 - Maurice of Nassau

Alexander of Parma was stuck in the Low Countries, the Spanish Armada unsuccessful at bringing him to invade England. But he had a large army gathered, so he began again attacking and taking Dutch cities, as he had done for years. This time, though, the young republic had an answer, in the form of William the Silent's young son, Maurice of Nassau

Sources:

  • John Lothrop Motley, The Rise of the Dutch Republic
  • John Lothrop Motley, The History of the United Netherlands
  • Geoffrey Parker, The Dutch Revolt
  • Geoffrey Parker, "Why Did the Dutch Revolt Last 80 Years?"
  • Geoffrey Parker, The Journal of Military History "Limits to Revolution in Military Affairs"
  • Oscar C Gelderbloom, "From Antwerp to Amsterdam"
  • JL Bolton, Francesco Guidi Bruscoli, “When Did Antwerp Replace Bruges as the commercial and financial centre of north-western Europe?”, The Economic History Review, 2008

Names Mentioned

Episode 4.6 - Dutch Revolt Pt 6 - Farnese and Leicester

Without William, the Dutch Republic presses on, and they get the Earl of Leicester to help them out against Alexander Farnese, the Duke of Parma, and Philip's governor in the Netherlands. The Dutch begin to run as a republic. Philip launches the Spanish Armada to take Farnese and his troops from the Low Countries to England. 

Sources:

  • John Lothrop Motley, The Rise of the Dutch Republic
  • John Lothrop Motley, The History of the United Netherlands
  • Geoffrey Parker, The Dutch Revolt
  • Geoffrey Parker, "Why Did the Dutch Revolt Last 80 Years?"
  • Geoffrey Parker, The Journal of Military History "Limits to Revolution in Military Affairs"
  • Oscar C Gelderbloom, "From Antwerp to Amsterdam"
  • JL Bolton, Francesco Guidi Bruscoli, “When Did Antwerp Replace Bruges as the commercial and financial centre of north-western Europe?”, The Economic History Review, 2008

Names Mentioned:

Episode 4.5 - Dutch Revolt Pt 5 - Alexander Farnese, the End of William, Start of a Republic

The Dutch Republic is slowly being retaken by Alexander Farnese. The Dutch form the Union of Utrecht to unite the remaining provinces, and then finally declare independence with the Act of Abjuration. And we see the end of William the Silent.

Sources:

  • John Lothrop Motley, The Rise of the Dutch Republic
  • John Lothrop Motley, The History of the United Netherlands
  • Geoffrey Parker, The Dutch Revolt
  • Geoffrey Parker, "Why Did the Dutch Revolt Last 80 Years?"
  • Geoffrey Parker, The Journal of Military History "Limits to Revolution in Military Affairs"
  • Oscar C Gelderbloom, "From Antwerp to Amsterdam"
  • JL Bolton, Francesco Guidi Bruscoli, “When Did Antwerp Replace Bruges as the commercial and financial centre of north-western Europe?”, The Economic History Review, 2008

Names Mentioned:

Episode 4.4 - Dutch Revolt Pt 4 - Three Sovereigns and Don Juan

The Spanish under Alba had crushed the revolt, but William gained a new foothold in Holland and Zeeland. Alba was gone, the Spanish were mutinous, and William took advantage, while the Dutch scrambled for a new royal figurehead

Sources:

  • John Lothrop Motley, The Rise of the Dutch Republic
  • John Lothrop Motley, The History of the United Netherlands
  • Geoffrey Parker, The Dutch Revolt
  • Geoffrey Parker, "Why Did the Dutch Revolt Last 80 Years?"
  • Geoffrey Parker, The Journal of Military History "Limits to Revolution in Military Affairs"
  • Oscar C Gelderbloom, "From Antwerp to Amsterdam"
  • JL Bolton, Francesco Guidi Bruscoli, “When Did Antwerp Replace Bruges as the commercial and financial centre of north-western Europe?”, The Economic History Review, 2008

Names Mentioned:

Episode 4.3 - Dutch Revolt Pt 3 - William Begs and the Beggars Answer

William the Silent tries to arrange an invasion of the Netherlands. He succeeds in raising forces, but in the end the Dutch Rebels are beaten back. They do establish a foothold in Holland and Zeeland, though, thanks to the Sea Beggars

Sources:

  • John Lothrop Motley, The Rise of the Dutch Republic
  • John Lothrop Motley, The History of the United Netherlands
  • Geoffrey Parker, The Dutch Revolt
  • Geoffrey Parker, "Why Did the Dutch Revolt Last 80 Years?"
  • Geoffrey Parker, The Journal of Military History "Limits to Revolution in Military Affairs"
  • Oscar C Gelderbloom, "From Antwerp to Amsterdam"
  • JL Bolton, Francesco Guidi Bruscoli, “When Did Antwerp Replace Bruges as the commercial and financial centre of north-western Europe?”, The Economic History Review, 2008

Names Mentioned:

Episode 4.2 - Dutch Revolt Pt 2 - William and the Duke of Alba

As King Philip II of Spain attempts to destroy heresy in the Low Countries, and tramples on the rights and privileges of the people there, the Dutch nobility have begun to push back. Philip responds by sending his greatest general, the Duke of Alba, while the Dutch people have their own responses in mind.

Sources:

  • John Lothrop Motley, The Rise of the Dutch Republic
  • John Lothrop Motley, The History of the United Netherlands
  • Geoffrey Parker, The Dutch Revolt
  • Geoffrey Parker, "Why Did the Dutch Revolt Last 80 Years?"
  • Geoffrey Parker, The Journal of Military History "Limits to Revolution in Military Affairs"
  • Oscar C Gelderbloom, "From Antwerp to Amsterdam"
  • JL Bolton, Francesco Guidi Bruscoli, “When Did Antwerp Replace Bruges as the commercial and financial centre of north-western Europe?”, The Economic History Review, 2008

Names Mentioned:

Episode 4.1 - Dutch Revolt Pt 1 - William the Silent

William the Silent, Prince of Orange-Nassau, was a leading noble in the Habsburg Netherlands. King Charles V split his empire in two, and gave the low countries to Spain, despite its cultural and religious similarities to the Holy Roman Empire. William would find his new sovereign, King Philip II of Spain to be a harsh and uncompromising ruler who would help sow the seeds of revolt in the territory.

Sources:

  • John Lothrop Motley, The Rise of the Dutch Republic
  • John Lothrop Motley, The History of the United Netherlands
  • Geoffrey Parker, The Dutch Revolt
  • Geoffrey Parker, "Why Did the Dutch Revolt Last 80 Years?"
  • Geoffrey Parker, The Journal of Military History "Limits to Revolution in Military Affairs"
  • Oscar C Gelderbloom, "From Antwerp to Amsterdam"
  • JL Bolton, Francesco Guidi Bruscoli, “When Did Antwerp Replace Bruges as the commercial and financial centre of north-western Europe?”, The Economic History Review, 2008
  • James M Murray, "Bruges, Cradle of Capitalism"

Names Mentioned:

Episode 3.5 - Normans in Italy Part 2: Roger II

Roger the second consolidated all of the Norman holdings in Sicily and Southern Italy into one united and long lasting kingdom. His ability as an administrator and statesman helped propel him past the other Norman leaders to become the first king of the Normans in Italy.

Sources:

  • G.A. Loud, The New Cambridge Medieval History, “Norman Sicily in the Twelfth Century.” 2004

  • Robert C. L. Holmes, American International Journal of Social Science, “Men of the North Wind the Norman Knight in the 11th Century Mediterranean.” 2015

  • Hubert Houben, Roger II of Sicily: A Ruler Between East and West. 2002

  • Edmund Curtis, Roger of Sicily and the Normans in Lower Italy, 1016-1154. 1912

  • Karen C. Britt, Mediterranean Studies, “Roger II of Sicily: Rex, Basileus, and Khalif? Identity, Politics, and Propaganda in the Cappella Palatina” 2007

  • Helene Wieruszowski, Speculum, “ Roger II of Sicily, Rex-Tyrannus, In Twelfth-Century Political Thought” 1963

Names Mentioned:

Episode 3.4 - Normans in Italy Part 1 - Robert Guiscard

Robert Guiscard, entered at the dawn of the Norman conquest of Italy, defeated his enemies and pushed aside his competing family members to take the whole of southern Italy, much of Sicily, and parts of the Balkan Peninsula.

Sources:

  • G.A. Loud, The New Cambridge Medieval History, “Norman Sicily in the Twelfth Century.” 2004

  • Robert C. L. Holmes, American International Journal of Social Science, “Men of the North Wind the Norman Knight in the 11th Century Mediterranean.” 2015

  • Hubert Houben, Roger II of Sicily: A Ruler Between East and West. 2002

  • Edmund Curtis, Roger of Sicily and the Normans in Lower Italy, 1016-1154. 1912

  • Karen C. Britt, Mediterranean Studies, “Roger II of Sicily: Rex, Basileus, and Khalif? Identity, Politics, and Propaganda in the Cappella Palatina” 2007

  • Helene Wieruszowski, Speculum, “ Roger II of Sicily, Rex-Tyrannus, In Twelfth-Century Political Thought” 1963

Names Mentioned:

Episode 3.3 - Seondeok

Seondeok was Queen of the Silla kingdom of Korea, one of three separate, often warring, kingdoms on the peninsula. She led Silla through a time where it's very existence was threatened, and began to set it on the path to dominance that would bear fruit soon after her death.

Sources:

  • Lee Ki-baik, A New History of Korea. Translated by Edward Wagner, 1984.

  • Tae-Don Noh, "A Study of Koguryŏ Relations Recorded in the Silla Annals of the Samguk Sagi", Korean Studies, 2004

  • Chong Sun Kim, "Silla Economy and Society", Korean Studies, 2004

  • Chong Sun Kim, "Sources of Cohesion and Fragmentation in the Silla Kingdom", Journal of Korean Studies, 1969.

  • Ancient History Encyclopedia, Marc Cartwright, "Queen Seondeok"

Names Mentioned: