Alexander of Parma was stuck in the Low Countries, the Spanish Armada unsuccessful at bringing him to invade England. But he had a large army gathered, so he began again attacking and taking Dutch cities, as he had done for years. This time, though, the young republic had an answer, in the form of William the Silent's young son, Maurice of Nassau
- John Lothrop Motley, The Rise of the Dutch Republic
- John Lothrop Motley, The History of the United Netherlands
- Geoffrey Parker, The Dutch Revolt
- Geoffrey Parker, "Why Did the Dutch Revolt Last 80 Years?"
- Geoffrey Parker, The Journal of Military History "Limits to Revolution in Military Affairs"
- Oscar C Gelderbloom, "From Antwerp to Amsterdam"
- JL Bolton, Francesco Guidi Bruscoli, “When Did Antwerp Replace Bruges as the commercial and financial centre of north-western Europe?”, The Economic History Review, 2008