The Dutch Republic is slowly being retaken by Alexander Farnese. The Dutch form the Union of Utrecht to unite the remaining provinces, and then finally declare independence with the Act of Abjuration. And we see the end of William the Silent.
- John Lothrop Motley, The Rise of the Dutch Republic
- John Lothrop Motley, The History of the United Netherlands
- Geoffrey Parker, The Dutch Revolt
- Geoffrey Parker, "Why Did the Dutch Revolt Last 80 Years?"
- Geoffrey Parker, The Journal of Military History "Limits to Revolution in Military Affairs"
- Oscar C Gelderbloom, "From Antwerp to Amsterdam"
- JL Bolton, Francesco Guidi Bruscoli, “When Did Antwerp Replace Bruges as the commercial and financial centre of north-western Europe?”, The Economic History Review, 2008