Episode 4.4 - Dutch Revolt Pt 4 - Three Sovereigns and Don Juan

The Spanish under Alba had crushed the revolt, but William gained a new foothold in Holland and Zeeland. Alba was gone, the Spanish were mutinous, and William took advantage, while the Dutch scrambled for a new royal figurehead


  • John Lothrop Motley, The Rise of the Dutch Republic
  • John Lothrop Motley, The History of the United Netherlands
  • Geoffrey Parker, The Dutch Revolt
  • Geoffrey Parker, "Why Did the Dutch Revolt Last 80 Years?"
  • Geoffrey Parker, The Journal of Military History "Limits to Revolution in Military Affairs"
  • Oscar C Gelderbloom, "From Antwerp to Amsterdam"
  • JL Bolton, Francesco Guidi Bruscoli, “When Did Antwerp Replace Bruges as the commercial and financial centre of north-western Europe?”, The Economic History Review, 2008

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