As King Philip II of Spain attempts to destroy heresy in the Low Countries, and tramples on the rights and privileges of the people there, the Dutch nobility have begun to push back. Philip responds by sending his greatest general, the Duke of Alba, while the Dutch people have their own responses in mind.
- John Lothrop Motley, The Rise of the Dutch Republic
- John Lothrop Motley, The History of the United Netherlands
- Geoffrey Parker, The Dutch Revolt
- Geoffrey Parker, "Why Did the Dutch Revolt Last 80 Years?"
- Geoffrey Parker, The Journal of Military History "Limits to Revolution in Military Affairs"
- Oscar C Gelderbloom, "From Antwerp to Amsterdam"
- JL Bolton, Francesco Guidi Bruscoli, “When Did Antwerp Replace Bruges as the commercial and financial centre of north-western Europe?”, The Economic History Review, 2008