William the Silent, Prince of Orange-Nassau, was a leading noble in the Habsburg Netherlands. King Charles V split his empire in two, and gave the low countries to Spain, despite its cultural and religious similarities to the Holy Roman Empire. William would find his new sovereign, King Philip II of Spain to be a harsh and uncompromising ruler who would help sow the seeds of revolt in the territory.
- John Lothrop Motley, The Rise of the Dutch Republic
- John Lothrop Motley, The History of the United Netherlands
- Geoffrey Parker, The Dutch Revolt
- Geoffrey Parker, "Why Did the Dutch Revolt Last 80 Years?"
- Geoffrey Parker, The Journal of Military History "Limits to Revolution in Military Affairs"
- Oscar C Gelderbloom, "From Antwerp to Amsterdam"
- JL Bolton, Francesco Guidi Bruscoli, “When Did Antwerp Replace Bruges as the commercial and financial centre of north-western Europe?”, The Economic History Review, 2008
- James M Murray, "Bruges, Cradle of Capitalism"