Roger the second consolidated all of the Norman holdings in Sicily and Southern Italy into one united and long lasting kingdom. His ability as an administrator and statesman helped propel him past the other Norman leaders to become the first king of the Normans in Italy.
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Hubert Houben, Roger II of Sicily: A Ruler Between East and West. 2002
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Karen C. Britt, Mediterranean Studies, “Roger II of Sicily: Rex, Basileus, and Khalif? Identity, Politics, and Propaganda in the Cappella Palatina” 2007
Helene Wieruszowski, Speculum, “ Roger II of Sicily, Rex-Tyrannus, In Twelfth-Century Political Thought” 1963