Episode 3.5 - Normans in Italy Part 2: Roger II

Roger the second consolidated all of the Norman holdings in Sicily and Southern Italy into one united and long lasting kingdom. His ability as an administrator and statesman helped propel him past the other Norman leaders to become the first king of the Normans in Italy.


  • G.A. Loud, The New Cambridge Medieval History, “Norman Sicily in the Twelfth Century.” 2004

  • Robert C. L. Holmes, American International Journal of Social Science, “Men of the North Wind the Norman Knight in the 11th Century Mediterranean.” 2015

  • Hubert Houben, Roger II of Sicily: A Ruler Between East and West. 2002

  • Edmund Curtis, Roger of Sicily and the Normans in Lower Italy, 1016-1154. 1912

  • Karen C. Britt, Mediterranean Studies, “Roger II of Sicily: Rex, Basileus, and Khalif? Identity, Politics, and Propaganda in the Cappella Palatina” 2007

  • Helene Wieruszowski, Speculum, “ Roger II of Sicily, Rex-Tyrannus, In Twelfth-Century Political Thought” 1963

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