Robert Guiscard, entered at the dawn of the Norman conquest of Italy, defeated his enemies and pushed aside his competing family members to take the whole of southern Italy, much of Sicily, and parts of the Balkan Peninsula.
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Hubert Houben, Roger II of Sicily: A Ruler Between East and West. 2002
Edmund Curtis, Roger of Sicily and the Normans in Lower Italy, 1016-1154. 1912
Karen C. Britt, Mediterranean Studies, “Roger II of Sicily: Rex, Basileus, and Khalif? Identity, Politics, and Propaganda in the Cappella Palatina” 2007
Helene Wieruszowski, Speculum, “ Roger II of Sicily, Rex-Tyrannus, In Twelfth-Century Political Thought” 1963