Episode 5.4 - Abd al Rahman

Abd al Rahman, once a legitimate heir to the largest empire in the world, had to hide and flee in exile when his dynasty was overthrown and his family was destroyed. But he wound up in Spain, where he consolidated the fractured Arab conquest and reignited his dynasty.


  • Philip K Hitti - History of the Arabs, From the Earliest Times to the Present

  • Ahmed ibm Mohammed Al-Makkari, The History of the Mohammedan Dynasties in Spain

  • Brian Catlos, Kingdoms of Faith A new History of Islamic Spain

  • Eduardo Manzano Moreno, The Iberian Peninsula and North Africa

  • Hugh Kennedy, The Muslims in Europe, The New Cambridge Medieval History

  • Abdurrahman A. El-Hajji, Andalusian Diplomatic Relations with the Franks During the Umayyad Period

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