Hayreddin Barbarossa was a Turkish pirate who helped expand the Ottoman Empire west, turned from corsair to admiral, built the Ottoman Navy, and helped change the balance of power in the Mediterranean.
- Ernle Bradford, The Sultan's Admiral
- E. Hamilton Currey, Sea-Wolves of the Mediterranean
- Islands and Military Orders, c.1291-c.1798, Ed: Simon Phillips
- Kenneth Setton, A History of the Crusades